research program application marine


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Gene Regulation


1        Fajriah Salleh, Mohd Nizam Lani, Noraznawati Ismail (2014) Antimicrobial Activity of Cell Free supernatant of Lactic Acid bacteria Isolated from Fermented Durian Flest against Multiple Antibiotic Resistance’s Salmonella Associated with Food Poisoning Cases in Malaysia. e-ISSN:  2278-3008, p-ISSN:2319-7676. Volume 9, Issue 6 Ver. IV, PP 60-65


2        Alia Basirah, Mohd Faizuddin Abu Hasan, Norliawati Mohd Sidek, Wan M. Khairul and Noraznawati Ismail (2013) Synthesis,characterization and antimicrobial activity of organotin (IV) complexes featuring Bis-2-methoxyethyl dithiocarbamate as ligand. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, Vol. 9 Issue 10, p5562


3        Hasyiya Karimah Adli, Norliawati Mohd Sidek, Noraznawati Ismail and Wan M. Khairul (2013) Several Organotin (IV) complexes featuring 1-Methylpiperazinedithiocarbamate and N-Methylcyclohexyldithiocarbamate as ligands and their anti-microbial activity studies. Chiang Mai J. Sci. ; 40(1) : 117-125


4        Ismail, N., Jolly, J.J., Dzulkiply, S.K., Mohd Mustakim, M.K., Nik Mohd Hafiz, A., Izzatul Huda, A.G., Taib, M., Shamsuddin, A.A. and Chatterji A. (2012) Allometric variation of horseshoe crabs (Tachypleus gigas) populations collected from Chendor and Cherating Pahang, peninsular Malaysia.  Journal of Sustainability Science and Management (Volume 7, No. 2, Pages 164 to 169)


5        Ismail, N. Taib, M. Shamsuddin, A. A., Shazani. S (2011) Genetic variability of wild horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller) in Tanjung Dawai, Kedah and Cherating, Pahang of Peninsular Malaysia. European Journal of Scientific Research, Vol. 60 Issue 4, p592


6        Ismail,N., & Sarijan, S. (2011) Phylogenetic inference from 18S rRNA gene sequences of horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus gigas between Tanjung Dawai, Kedah & Cherating, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. World Academy of Science, Engineering & Technology, Issue 56, p947


7        Shamsuddin, A.A., Lukman Hakim, M.D., Kumari, G.M. and Noraznawati I. (2010) Anti-bacterial Activity of Three Species of Sea Urchin Extracts from Pulau Bidong, Terengganu. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management Volume 5 (1) : 116-124


8        L.M. Barrios, S.J. Chambers, N.,Ismail., Guzman., H.M. and J.M. Mair (2009) Distribution of Idanthyrsus cretus (Polychaeta: Sabellariidae) in the Tropical Eastern Pacific and application of PCR-RAPD for population analysis. Zoosymposia 2: 487–503


9        Anil Chatterji and Noraznawati Ismail (2008) Horseshoe crabs ? a valuable marine creature. Prospect Malaysia 50-56


10      Shamsuddin, A. A., Lukman Hakim, M. D., Zaidad-Maraicar, A.S., Najiah, M. Kamarulzaman, B.Y., Effendy, A.W. and Noraznawati, I. (2005) Preliminary study of marine bacterium, Shewanella putrefaciens associated with marine sponge, Theonella sp. Journal Ultra Scientist of Physical Sciences






















Identification of biomedical potentials in the amoebocyte and haemolymph of Malaysia Horseshoe Crabs, Tachypleus gigas (Müller) and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda (Latreili).


This project is aimed particularly on two Malaysian species of the horseshoe crab, T. gigas and C. rotundicauda. The objectives are to demonstrate the similarity in quality of the amoebocyte lysate comparable to the commercially available amoebocyte and haemolymph following standardized techniques of preparation and validation; to determine the biochemical composition of amoebocyte (AL) and haemolymph of Malaysian species of the horseshoe crabs with ultimate aim to improve their added value and quality and to derive potential properties for improvement of anti-LPS activity of the peptide. This study generated data of the AL quality from the local horseshoe crabs, with the anticipated outcome primarily to prove that the Malaysian horseshoe crab is comparable to the LAL if not better, and developed a prototype for endotoxin detection kit therein to cater the growing need of local and international markets. AL and other medically important compounds can be produced in Malaysia at a lower cost thus providing the existing market with a cheaper alternative of the same quality product if not better. The research is then extended to purify proteins and to identify and characterize other unknown factors that enhance the coagulation processes.


Mechanisms Of Interactions Between Sponges And Marine  Bacteria As  Route To The Discovery Of Novel Bioactive Compounds


In my previous study some observations may suggest intercellular communication involvement in the production of antimicrobial compounds. Some cell-cell signaling models have been well established  for intercellular communication. Although there is no strategy for the discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds based on induction mechanisms in microorganisms such as quorum sensing, there has been evidence suggesting that quorum sensing is related to the production of antimicobial compounds by various genera.The aim of this project is to investigate  the release of antimicrobial compounds and mechanisms that control its production from marine isolates under ecologically relevant conditions using Air-Membrane Surface (AMS) Bioreactor. Other aims are to characterize the  antimicrobial compounds produced by the marine isolates using AMS Bioreactor as well as characterize the bacteria isolates associated with sponges. This project is carried out by devising a ‘niche-mimic bioreactor’, in which physical and chemical conditions are similar to the original ecological niche from which the bacteria will be isolated. Biofilm formation by bacteria was found to be the key requirement for this observation. An AMS  bioreactor isl therefore be constructed to allow growth of attached bacteria within a biofilm. Further investigation into the mechanism of this induction will show how the corresponding AMS culture could induce the  corresponding shake flask culture to produce certain metabolites. Furthermore, metabolites from shake flask culture, which can be induced by AMS culture  might be able to continue to produce non-producing shake flask culture. Therefore, in the meantime a hypothesis on the search for antimicrobial compounds from marine bacteria, is going to be tested in this work. The hypothesis is that release of antimicrobial compounds from marine bacteria could be facilitated under ecologically relevant growth conditions. The production of antimicrobial compounds was indeed induced using air-membrane bioreactor (AMS), therefore, mechanisms of this induction by AMS will be investigated. This also will lead to a similar hypothesis that AMS could induce the production of antimicrobial compounds. Investigation of the second hypothesis led to the third hypothesis, which is the presence of biofilm specific signalling system.