Postal address:
Institute of Marine Biotechnology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia

Contact person:
Yeong Yik Sung 

Brief description of involvement in Artemia activities or plans:

The Institute of Marine Biotechnology (IMB) was established in 2006 at Universiti Malaysia Terengganu to lead marine biotechnology research, development, and commercialization efforts. The establishment of IMB is in line with the country’s effort to develop biotechnology as one of the core sectors to generate economic growth and improve societal well-being. IMB currently has four research programs: Natural & Synthetic Products, Immune and Molecular Therapeutics, Marine Microbes, and Bioinformatics to facilitate the realization of its vision.


IMB researchers use brine shrimp Artemia as a model organism to study crustacean stress and disease responses. Stress protein regulation and synthesis in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, functions of stress proteins in environmental stress adaptation, mechanistic action of stress proteins during disease, stress proteins and innate immunity, are all research topics actively conducted at IMB. Experts at IMB use advanced molecular and bioinformatic methods to investigate the functional roles of stress proteins in Artemia, such as the application of RNAi technology to obscure heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and small heat shock protein expression in cysts and nauplii to investigate their function during diapause and growth. 


IMB experts are also working on developing novel and efficient methods for tank production of Artemia. IMB had previously developed PKC-Nutri+®, a formulated feed capable of growing Artemia nauplii to adult stage in 14 days. This has made it possible to produce Artemia biomass in large quantities in indoor tanks without the hassle of using microalgae as a starter feed. Local farmers have adopted these technologies to increase Artemia biomass production in Malaysia. IMB is in the process of constructing a hatchery and processing facilities to promote Artemia culture, sales, and commercialization.



Most important Artemia-related papers/books:

Iryani MTM, Sorgeloos P, Danish-Daniel M, Tan MP, Wong LL, Mok WJ, Satyantini WH, Mahasri G, Sung YY (2020) Cysts Viability and Stress Tolerance upon Heat Shock Protein 70 Knockdown in the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana. Cell Stress & Chaperones 25; 1099-1103.


Iryani MTM, MacRae TH, Sorgeloos P, Muhammad TST, Danish-Daniel M, Tan MP, Satyantini WH, Wahid MEA, Sun J, Lv A, Sung YY. (2020) RNA interference of Hsp70 in Artemia franciscana nauplii and its effect on morphology, growth, survival and immune response. Aquaculture 520, 735012.


Iryani MTM, MacRae TH, Panchakshari S, Tan J, Bossier P, Effendy AWM, Sung YY (2017) Knockdown of Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) by RNAi Reduces the Tolerance of Artemia franciscana Nauplii to Heat and Bacterial Infection. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 487;106-112.

Sung YY. Heat shock proteins in Artemia: role and applications in aquaculture In Report of the FAO Expert Workshop on Sustainable Use and Management of Artemia Resources in Asia. Tianjin, China, 7–9 November 2016. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Report No. 1198, Rome, Italy.


Ikhwanuddin M, Azra MN, Sung YY, Abol-Munafi AB, Shabdin ML (2012) Live Foods for Juveniles’ Production of Blue Swimming Crab, Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1766). Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 7: 266-278.


Sung YY, MacRae TH (2011) Heat Shock Proteins and Disease Control in Aquatic Organisms. Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development S2:006. Special Edition “Current and Emerging Diseases/Disorders of Fish in Aquaculture” (by invitation) doi:10.4172/2155-9546.S2-006


Sung, YY, MacRae TH, Sorgeloos P., Bossier P (2011), Stress Response for Disease Control in Aquaculture. Reviews in Aquaculture, 3: 120–137.


Roberts RJ, Agius C, Saliba C, Bossier P, Sung YY (2010) Heat Shock Proteins (Chaperones) in Fishes and Shellfishes and their Potential Role in Health and Welfare: A Review. Journal of Fish Diseases 33, 789-801. 


Robbins, H., Stappen G.V., Sorgeloos, P. Sung, Y.Y., MacRae, T.H., Bossier, P. (2010). Diapause Termination and Development of Encysted Artemia Embryos: Roles for Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide. Journal of Experimental Biology 213, 1464-1470. 


Sung YY, Dhaene, T., Defoirdt, T., Boon, N., MacRae, T.H., Sorgeloos, P., Bossier, P. (2009). Ingestion of bacteria over-producing DnaK attenuates Vibrio infection of gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae. Cell Stress Chaperones 14, 603-609. (Cover journal)


Sung YY, Ashame, M. F., Chen, S. J., MacRae, T.H., Sorgeloos, P., Bossier, P. (2009). Feeding Artemia franciscana (Kellogg) larvae with bacterial heat shock protein protects from Vibrio campbellii (Baumann) infection. Journal of Fish Diseases 32, 675-685.

Sung YY, Pineda, C., MacRae, T.H., Sorgeloos, P., Bossier, P. (2008). Exposure of gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae to abiotic stress promotes heat shock protein 70 synthesis and enhances resistance to pathogenic Vibrio campbelliiCell Stress Chaperones 13, 59-66.


Sung YY, Van Damme, E. J. M., Sorgeloos, P., Bossier, P. (2007). Non-lethal heat shock protects gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae against virulent Vibrios. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 22, 318-326.