Postal address:
College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University

Campus II, 3/2 street, Ninh Kieu district, Can Tho city, Viet Nam

Tel: (84-292) 3832663 – (84-292) 3832660; Fax:  (84-292) 3838474; Email: dhct@ctu.edu.vn

Contact person:
Nguyen Van Hoa  nvhoa@ctu.edu.vn 

Brief description of involvement in Artemia activities or plans:
Without Artemia in natural habitat but thanks to the collaboration effectively between KWT (The Netherlands), Ghent University (Belgium) and College of Aquaculture and Fisheries (CAF), Cantho University, Artemia franciscana strain (San Francisco Bay, California, USA) was first introduced into Vinh Chau saltfields (Soctrang province) since early 80’s; after a few year to adapt to the new habitat the first over 1,000 kilogram of cysts (in wet-weight) were collected with almost 90 kg/ha/season (4 months) in the same decade. From then cyst production in Vinh Chau have been expanded to the saltfields locally (Soc Trang and Bac Lieu provinces) and trials also made to the other provinces in the Mekong Delta (e.g. Tra Vinh, Kien Giang, Ben Tre…). 

Great efforts have been made so far by CAF for Artemia farming in solar-saltworks like culture system (i.e. mono- vs. integrated system; static vs. flow-through system; one-cycle- vs. multi-cycles system,…), fertilization procedure, feeding protocol, type of feeding and these help to increase significantly not only the productivity (i.e. in suitable environment and appropriate pond management a pond can end up with 200 kg cyst (wet-weight) /ha/season and if biomass is the main harvested product the production could reach 1 ton (wet-weight) of biomass per month per hectare and bring up 4-5 tons per hectare per season in the site. Currently, almost 800 hectares of saltfields has been switched into Artemia farming per year, of which more than 700 households involved and they could earn from 3,000 up to 8,500 USD/ha/season and corresponding to threefold up to fivefold compared to traditional salt production. The area now could produce 40-60 tons of cysts and 300-400 tons of biomass (wet-weight) annually. The common technique for Artemia farming in the site is 1) stocking Artemia at saline water of 80 ppt, then 2) pond has been maintained by supplying of green-water from fertilization pond as feeding, sometime extra feeding with rice-bran, fish meal, or formulated feed ..needed, 3) Artemia will reach to adult after 2-3 weeks since inoculation and start to reproduce (either ovoviviparous or oviparous), 4) cysts/biomass  will be collected and went through processing prior commercialization (canned cysts or frozen biomass).

As another aquaculture activities Artemia farming has negative impact from climate change although saline water intrusion is not a big deal. High water temperature is the first concern as it is typically subjected to shallow water (to facility for high saline water required), moreover water temperature is positively related to salinity therefore high water temperature is the big trouble for Artemia culture. Several efforts have been made and convinced for cooling down water temperature (e.g. level up water depth, controlled salinity, shading pond surface partly…); secondly, unforeseen precipitation during the dry season or late dry season together with cool temperature are aslo disaster for Artemia farming as the season has shortened as low salinity prolonged as usual. It is therefore a number of technical advices have been recommended as 1) to keep saline water from last season for next season inoculation, 2) to facility of evaporation by pumping and raking frequently, 3) to salinize sea water with crude salt although this is more expensive than previous manners. 

Artemia farming in the Mekong Delta currently is the main subsistence for saltfarmers in Soc Trang and Bac Lieu provinces compared to salt production, however the activity needs to be sustained especially in climate change as appropriate solution need to pinpoint and to clarify per site/location in order to help saltfarmers now become Artemia farmers for sustainable development.

CAF has significantly contributed to the training to local Artemia farmers yearly to bring up advanced pond culture technologies e.g applying biofloc technology, improved pond culture techniques in accordance to climate change (e.g. culture at salinity less than 80 ppt) and recently address to treat intensive white leg shrimp farming by alive Artemia…)

Beside Artemia pond production has been emphasized for the post-graduated program which is implementing with the aim to share its knowledge on Artemia pond culture to tropical countries where Artemia culture in saltworks could be achieved.

Weblink: https://caf.ctu.edu.vn/ 

Most important Artemia-related papers/books:

Tran Ngoc Hai, Nguyen Thanh Phuong, Nguyen Van Hoa, Le Quoc Viet, Ly Van Khanh, Chau Tai Tao, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Anh, Ngo Thi Thu Thao and Patrick Sorgeloos. 2020. Promoting Coastal Aquaculture for Adaptation to Climate Change and Saltwater Intrusion in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. World Aquaculture, 51(2): 19-26.

Nguyen Van Hoa, Le Van Thong and Patrick Sorgeloos. 2020. State of the art of brine shrimp Artemia production in artisanal saltworks in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. World Aquaculture, 51(3): 19-22.

Nguyen Van Hoa and Patrick Sorgeloos. 2020. Brine shrimp Artemia as a direct human food. World Aquaculture, 51(3): 24-25.

Hoa N. V., Nhi D. T. 2020 Determination of an appropriate ratio of N:P for optimisation of algal development in fertilizer ponds. AACL Bioflux 13 (6): 3727-3742. 

Hoa N. V., Le T. H. 2021 Determination of appropriate fertilisation frequencies for optimising wild algae development. AACL Bioflux 14(2): 1009-1020.

Huynh Thanh Toi, Nguyen Thi Hong Van, Nguyen Van Hoa. 2021 Use of inorganic fertilizers and effects of N:P ratio manipulation on growth of The cell population of Dunaliella sp. Asia Life Sciences, 11 (4): 1107-1115.